Feta Scrunch Phyllo PieFeta Scrunch Phyllo Pie

Serve up this delicious combination over some greens for a different first course or en-joy it for lunch. The fresh herb and cheese combination makes it a winner.

Diabetes Prevention and MilkDiabetes Prevention and Milk

Diabetes Prevention And Milk

How milk plays a role in preventing type 2 diabetes

How milk plays a role in preventing type 2 diabetes

More than 5.7 million Canadians have diabetes and about 90 percent have type 2 diabetes. An additional six million Canadians are living with prediabetes—a condition that can develop into type 2 diabetes if it’s not properly managed.1,2,3

Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be managed with combination of proper nutrition, physical activity, stress reduction, medication (when needed) and careful blood sugar monitoring.4

The dietary pattern for diabetes prevention and management includes:

  • Choosing healthy proteins.
  • Opting for low-glycemic carbohydrates, such as whole grains, legumes, vegetables and fruit.
  • Choosing more whole foods and fewer ultra-processed foods.
  • Limit sugars and sweets.5

This article will explore the role of milk and dairy foods in the prevention of T2D. It includes the potential mechanisms through which milk and dairy foods may play a role in reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Overview of the nutrients in milk

Milk contains protein and 14 essential vitamins and minerals including:

  • Vitamin A
  • B vitamins: B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12
  • Vitamin D
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Phosphorus
  • Zinc
  • Potassium
  • Selenium

Fat in milk

Dairy foods likely protect against T2D due to their combination of calcium, magnesium, vitamin D and protein, which help reduce body fat and insulin resistance.6 There is no evidence that saturated fat from full-fat dairy foods is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance or T2D.7 In fact, a meta-analysis showed that a high intake of dairy foods was associated with a significant decrease in the risk of T2D.8

Lactose in milk

Milk contains a naturally occurring sugar called lactose. Lactose has a glycemic index (GI) of 46, which is considered low.9 The GI is a scale that ranks carbohydrate-containing foods and beverages by how much they raise blood sugar levels. Diabetes Canada advises choosing foods with a low glycemic index (<55) most often, since low GI diets may decrease risk of type 2 diabetes.

Milk contains a naturally occurring sugar called lactose. Lactose has a glycemic index (GI) of 46, which is considered low.9 The GI is a scale that ranks carbohydrate-containing foods and beverages by how much they raise blood sugar levels. Diabetes Canada advises choosing foods with a low glycemic index (<55) most often, since low GI diets may decrease risk of type 2 diabetes.

Cow’s milk (skim, 1%, 2% and whole) and plain yogurt are low GI.10 What accounts for the low GI status of milk and yogurt? A combination of things, including
  • Lactose is naturally low-GI.
  • A high protein content.
  • The dairy matrix, which helps control gastric emptying.11

Research on the link between milk and T2D

Type 2 diabetes risk reduction:

Many studies have shown a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes in people who consume sufficient dairy foods.12,13,14,15

A meta-analysis looked at 21 studies and a total of 44,474 T2D cases. The analysis showed a significant inverse association in developing diabetes in those who consumed more dairy vs. least dairy. Each additional daily 200 g of dairy products was inversely associated with diabetes risk.16 Other studies have shown that 200-400 grams of dairy foods daily are linked to the largest reduction in T2D risk.17,18

A narrative review of cohort studies suggests up to a 15 percent decrease in the risk of developing T2D in people who have three servings of dairy foods per day.19 The benefits are attributed primarily to a low-fat dairy, yogurt and possibly to cheese. Another meta-analysis found high-quality evidence linking intakes of low-fat dairy and yogurt with a reduced risk of T2D.20

Studies also indicate that total intake of dairy foods, including whole-fat dairy foods like milk, cheese and yogurt, is associated with a lower risk of T2D and lower risk of high blood pressure.21,22 Another study found that high-fat dairy was protective against prediabetes, while neutral associations were seen for low-fat dairy types.23

Why do dairy foods help reduce T2D risk?

Some of the main risk factors for developing T2D are hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Since dairy products can contribute to reducing these risk factors, they also help reduce T2D. Here are some mechanisms at work:

  • Fats: Dairy-derived fatty acids are associated with less insulin resistance. Studies also show that certain fatty acids in dairy, such as pentadecanoic acid and heptadecanoic acid, are associated with lower blood sugar levels (in oral glucose tolerance tests).24 Vitamin K2: Some dairy foods contain vitamin K-2, which can improve insulin sensitivity.25
  • Calcium, magnesium and vitamin D: These nutrients work synergistically by controlling insulin resistance, pancreatic beta-cell function and inflammation.26,27
  • Probiotics and bioactive compounds: Fermented dairy (especially yogurt) is associated with reduced risk of developing T2D due to the presence of probiotic bacteria.28 Fermentation of dairy foods with bacteria generates bioactive peptides, which have a beneficial effect on metabolic health, and may help improve blood cholesterol and fasting blood glucose levels.29
  • Protein: The amino acids and bioactive peptides from milk proteins may help delay gastric emptying and enhance the insulin response, which helps lower postprandial glucose levels.30

Practical tips:

Consuming dairy foods within a balanced diet can help lower risk for T2D. When patients ask for nutrition advice for diabetes prevention, start with these tips.

  • Refer to a registered dietitian for personalized advice
  • Choose whole foods more often than highly processed foods.
  • Build meals using these proportions: ½ plate vegetables and fruit; ¼ plate whole grains; ¼ plate protein.31
  • Aim for 2-3 servings of milk or dairy products each day.

There’s high-quality scientific evidence to show that dairy foods are associated with a reduced risk of T2D. Patients can be advised to enjoy consuming dairy foods within a balanced diet, and get the benefits of nutrients such as protein, calcium, vitamin D, dairy fat and bioactive compounds. The protective role of dairy in the development of T2D is thought to be largely attributable to the dairy matrix.

CITATIONS

1 https://www.diabetes.ca/media-room/press-releases/diabetes-rates-continue-to-climb-in-canada
2 https://www.diabetes.ca/advocacy—policies/advocacy-reports/national-and-provincial-backgrounders/diabetes-in-canada
3 https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/publications/diseases-conditions/framework-diabetes-canada.html
4 https://www.diabetes.ca/about-diabetes/type-2/treatment
5 https://www.diabetes.ca/resources/tools—resources/basic-meal-planning
6 Aune D, et al. (2013). Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 98(4):1066-1083. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.059030
7 Béatrice Morio et al. (2016). Involvement of dietary saturated fats, from all sources or of dairy origin only, in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, Nutr Rev, 74(1) Pages 33–47, https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/article/74/1/33/1905672?login=false
8 Aune D, et al. (2013). Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 98(4):1066-1083. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.059030
9 Romero-Velarde E, et al. (2019). The Importance of Lactose in the Human Diet. Nutrients. 12;11(11):2737. doi: 10.3390/nu11112737.
10 https://guidelines.diabetes.ca/docs/patient-resources/glycemic-index-food-guide.pdf
11 Shkembi B, Huppertz T. (2023). Glycemic Responses of Milk and Plant-Based Drinks: Food Matrix Effects. Foods. 12(3):453. doi: 10.3390/foods12030453.
12 Drouin-Chartier JP, et al. (2016). Systematic Review of the Association between Dairy Product Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular-Related Clinical Outcomes. Adv Nutr. 7(6):1026-1040. doi:10.3945/an.115.011403
13 Schwingshackl L et al, (2017). Food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017 May;32(5):363-375. doi: 10.1007/s10654-017-0246-y.
14 Alvarez-Bueno C, et al. (2019). Effects of Milk and Dairy Product Consumption on Type 2 Diabetes: Overview of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Adv Nutr. 1;10(suppl_2):S154-S163. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmy107.
15 Gijsbers L, et al. (2016). Consumption of dairy foods and diabetes incidence: a dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 103(4):1111-1124. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.123216
16 Schwingshackl L et al, (2017). Food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017 May;32(5):363-375. doi: 10.1007/s10654-017-0246-y.
17 Alvarez-Bueno C, et al. (2019). Effects of Milk and Dairy Product Consumption on Type 2 Diabetes: Overview of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Adv Nutr. 1;10(suppl_2):S154-S163. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmy107.
18 Gijsbers L, et al. (2016). Consumption of dairy foods and diabetes incidence: a dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 103(4):1111-1124. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.123216
19 Mitri J, et al. (2019). Dairy intake and type 2 diabetes risk factors: A narrative review. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 13(5):2879-2887. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2019.07.064
20 Drouin-Chartier JP, et al. (2016). Systematic Review of the Association between Dairy Product Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular-Related Clinical Outcomes. Adv Nutr. 7(6):1026-1040. doi:10.3945/an.115.011403
21 Bhavadharini B, et al (2020). Association of dairy consumption with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and diabetes in 147 812 individuals from 21 countries. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2020;8(1):e000826. 10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000826
22 Kummer K et al. (2019). Full-Fat Dairy Food Intake is Associated with a Lower Risk of Incident Diabetes Among American Indians with Low Total Dairy Food Intake. J Nutr. 2019 Jul 1;149(7):1238-1244. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxz058.
23 Slurink IA et al (2023). Dairy Product Consumption and Incident Prediabetes in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study With 12 Years of Follow-Up. J Nutr. 153(6):1742-1752. doi:10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.032
24 Mitri J, et al. (2019). Dairy intake and type 2 diabetes risk factors: A narrative review. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 13(5):2879-2887. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2019.07.064
25 Fernandez MA, et al. (2017). Yogurt and Cardiometabolic Diseases: A Critical Review of Potential Mechanisms. Adv Nutr. 8(6):812-829. Published 2017 Nov 15. doi:10.3945/an.116.013946
26 Hirahatake KM et al. (2014). Associations between dairy foods, diabetes, and metabolic health: potential mechanisms and future directions. Metabolism. 63(5):618-27. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2014.02.009.
27 Aune D et al (2013). Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(4):1066-1083. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.059030
28 Companys J et al. (2020). Fermented Dairy Products, Probiotic Supplementation, and Cardiometabolic Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Adv Nutr. 11(4):834-863. doi:10.1093/advances/nmaa030
29 Fernandez MA, et al. (2017). Yogurt and Cardiometabolic Diseases: A Critical Review of Potential Mechanisms. Adv Nutr. 8(6):812-829. Published 2017 Nov 15. doi:10.3945/an.116.013946
30 Hidayat K, et al. (2019). Milk in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: The potential role of milk proteins. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 35(8):e3187. doi:10.1002/dmrr.3187
31 Canada’s Food Guide. https://food-guide.canada.ca/en/healthy-eating-recommendations/

Resources

Download useful resources, research studies, and fact sheets on the benefits of dairy

Milk and Mucus

Milk and Mucus The current body of research indicates that milk and other dairy foods do not increase mucus production...

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Hypertension

MILK AND BLOOD PRESSURE Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease and hypertension...

GET THE FACTS

Disease Prevention

Disease Prevention Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes..

GET THE FACTS

RESOURCES

Download useful resources, research studies, and fact sheets on the benefits of dairy

Nutrients in Dairy

As a source of complete protein and essential nutrients, drinking milk is a simple way to support optimal health.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy and Disease Prevention

Naturally nutrient dense, milk helps to combat nutrition deficiencies and ward off heart disease, hypertension, and colorectal cancer.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy Milk and Plant Based Beverages

All forms of milk, including lactose-free milk, contain complete protein, vitamins, and minerals.

GET THE FACTS

Heart Health Benefits of Milk

It is estimated that 80% of heart disease cases can be prevented with lifestyle changes that include a nutritious diet, regular exercise, and smoking cessation.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy and Colorectal Cancer

Studies have shown that high consumption of total dairy products and total milk was associated with a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Hypertension

Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease and hypertension. Learn how adding milk into your patients’ diets can help with blood pressure management.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Lactose Intolerance

Some people have trouble digesting lactose, but that doesn’t mean giving up dairy! Read on to learn more about lactose intolerance, how it’s formally diagnosed, and how you can provide the best nutrition advice to patients.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Physical Activity

Milk has a unique combination of nutrients that make it the ideal beverage for post-exercise rehydration and protein
synthesis.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Pediatric Nutrition

Leading pediatric and health organizations recognize the benefits of milk and dairy foods for early childhood. Just how much milk is recommended for children, and which nutrients will kids get from a tall glass of milk?

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Mucus

When a runny nose or congestion appears, many people believe they need to cut out milk to reduce mucus. It turns out that this is a myth, and studies show that milk does not cause mucus.

GET THE FACTS

Diabetes Prevention and Milk

Take a closer look at the role of milk in the prevention of T2D. There are potential mechanisms through which milk and dairy foods may play a role in reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes

GET THE FACTS

CITATIONS
1 https://www.diabetes.ca/media-room/press-releases/diabetes-rates-continue-to-climb-in-canada
2 https://www.diabetes.ca/advocacy---policies/advocacy-reports/national-and-provincial-backgrounders/diabetes-in-canada
3 https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/publications/diseases-conditions/framework-diabetes-canada.html
4 https://www.diabetes.ca/about-diabetes/type-2/treatment
5 https://www.diabetes.ca/resources/tools---resources/basic-meal-planning
6 Aune D, et al. (2013). Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 98(4):1066-1083. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.059030
7 Béatrice Morio et al. (2016). Involvement of dietary saturated fats, from all sources or of dairy origin only, in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, Nutr Rev, 74(1) Pages 33–47, https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/article/74/1/33/1905672?login=false
8 Aune D, et al. (2013). Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 98(4):1066-1083. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.059030
9 Romero-Velarde E, et al. (2019). The Importance of Lactose in the Human Diet. Nutrients. 12;11(11):2737. doi: 10.3390/nu11112737.
10 https://guidelines.diabetes.ca/docs/patient-resources/glycemic-index-food-guide.pdf
11 Shkembi B, Huppertz T. (2023). Glycemic Responses of Milk and Plant-Based Drinks: Food Matrix Effects. Foods. 12(3):453. doi: 10.3390/foods12030453.
12 Drouin-Chartier JP, et al. (2016). Systematic Review of the Association between Dairy Product Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular-Related Clinical Outcomes. Adv Nutr. 7(6):1026-1040. doi:10.3945/an.115.011403
13 Schwingshackl L et al, (2017). Food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017 May;32(5):363-375. doi: 10.1007/s10654-017-0246-y.
14 Alvarez-Bueno C, et al. (2019). Effects of Milk and Dairy Product Consumption on Type 2 Diabetes: Overview of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Adv Nutr. 1;10(suppl_2):S154-S163. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmy107.
15 Gijsbers L, et al. (2016). Consumption of dairy foods and diabetes incidence: a dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 103(4):1111-1124. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.123216
16 Schwingshackl L et al, (2017). Food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017 May;32(5):363-375. doi: 10.1007/s10654-017-0246-y.
17 Alvarez-Bueno C, et al. (2019). Effects of Milk and Dairy Product Consumption on Type 2 Diabetes: Overview of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Adv Nutr. 1;10(suppl_2):S154-S163. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmy107.
18 Gijsbers L, et al. (2016). Consumption of dairy foods and diabetes incidence: a dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 103(4):1111-1124. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.123216
19 Mitri J, et al. (2019). Dairy intake and type 2 diabetes risk factors: A narrative review. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 13(5):2879-2887. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2019.07.064
20 Drouin-Chartier JP, et al. (2016). Systematic Review of the Association between Dairy Product Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular-Related Clinical Outcomes. Adv Nutr. 7(6):1026-1040. doi:10.3945/an.115.011403
21 Bhavadharini B, et al (2020). Association of dairy consumption with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and diabetes in 147 812 individuals from 21 countries. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2020;8(1):e000826. 10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000826
22 Kummer K et al. (2019). Full-Fat Dairy Food Intake is Associated with a Lower Risk of Incident Diabetes Among American Indians with Low Total Dairy Food Intake. J Nutr. 2019 Jul 1;149(7):1238-1244. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxz058.
23 Slurink IA et al (2023). Dairy Product Consumption and Incident Prediabetes in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study With 12 Years of Follow-Up. J Nutr. 153(6):1742-1752. doi:10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.03.032
24 Mitri J, et al. (2019). Dairy intake and type 2 diabetes risk factors: A narrative review. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 13(5):2879-2887. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2019.07.064
25 Fernandez MA, et al. (2017). Yogurt and Cardiometabolic Diseases: A Critical Review of Potential Mechanisms. Adv Nutr. 8(6):812-829. Published 2017 Nov 15. doi:10.3945/an.116.013946
26 Hirahatake KM et al. (2014). Associations between dairy foods, diabetes, and metabolic health: potential mechanisms and future directions. Metabolism. 63(5):618-27. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2014.02.009.
27 Aune D et al (2013). Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(4):1066-1083. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.059030
28 Companys J et al. (2020). Fermented Dairy Products, Probiotic Supplementation, and Cardiometabolic Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Adv Nutr. 11(4):834-863. doi:10.1093/advances/nmaa030
29 Fernandez MA, et al. (2017). Yogurt and Cardiometabolic Diseases: A Critical Review of Potential Mechanisms. Adv Nutr. 8(6):812-829. Published 2017 Nov 15. doi:10.3945/an.116.013946
30 Hidayat K, et al. (2019). Milk in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: The potential role of milk proteins. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 35(8):e3187. doi:10.1002/dmrr.3187
31 Canada’s Food Guide. https://food-guide.canada.ca/en/healthy-eating-recommendations/

RESOURCES

Download useful resources, research studies, and fact sheets on the benefits of dairy

Nutrients in Dairy

As a source of complete protein and essential nutrients, drinking milk is a simple way to support optimal health.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy and Disease Prevention

Naturally nutrient dense, milk helps to combat nutrition deficiencies and ward off heart disease, hypertension, and colorectal cancer.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy Milk and Plant Based Beverages

All forms of milk, including lactose-free milk, contain complete protein, vitamins, and minerals.

GET THE FACTS

Heart Health Benefits of Milk

It is estimated that 80% of heart disease cases can be prevented with lifestyle changes that include a nutritious diet, regular exercise, and smoking cessation.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy and Colorectal Cancer

Studies have shown that high consumption of total dairy products and total milk was associated with a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Hypertension

Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease and hypertension. Learn how adding milk into your patients’ diets can help with blood pressure management.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Lactose Intolerance

Some people have trouble digesting lactose, but that doesn’t mean giving up dairy! Read on to learn more about lactose intolerance, how it’s formally diagnosed, and how you can provide the best nutrition advice to patients.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Physical Activity

Milk has a unique combination of nutrients that make it the ideal beverage for post-exercise rehydration and protein
synthesis.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Pediatric Nutrition

Leading pediatric and health organizations recognize the benefits of milk and dairy foods for early childhood. Just how much milk is recommended for children, and which nutrients will kids get from a tall glass of milk?

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Mucus

When a runny nose or congestion appears, many people believe they need to cut out milk to reduce mucus. It turns out that this is a myth, and studies show that milk does not cause mucus.

GET THE FACTS

Diabetes Prevention and Milk

Take a closer look at the role of milk in the prevention of T2D. There are potential mechanisms through which milk and dairy foods may play a role in reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes

GET THE FACTS

Milk and MucusMilk and Mucus

Milk and Mucus

The current body of research indicates that milk and other dairy foods do not increase mucus production.

When a runny nose or congestion appears, many people believe they need to cut out milk to reduce mucus. It turns out that this is a myth, and studies show that milk does not cause mucus. Researchers think the false belief may come from how milk feels in the mouth and throat because of its naturally creamy texture.

What does the science show?

A review of the scientific evidence published in the journal of Archives of Disease in Childhood by the Department of Paediatric Respiratory Medicine, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK shows no increase in mucus production from milk.1 In fact the review referred to milk as “an important source of energy, and the principal source of calcium for children and adults, as well as a good source of several vitamins.”

The review explains that getting enough calcium is critical for normal bone health and for preventing osteoporosis. The author concludes that “the milk–mucus myth needs to be rebutted firmly by healthcare workers.”

In the 1990s, two studies were carried out to examine the milk and mucus link. A study published in 1990 focused on 60 adults with sinus colds. Researchers collected data on symptoms, milk intake and mucus, and found no correlation between milk or dairy intake and symptoms of congestion or the weight of nasal secretions produced.2

In 1993, a study divided subjects into a milk or placebo (soy beverage) group.3 Both groups reported that drinking milk or soy beverage caused:

  • Coating over the mouth
  • Coating over the back of the throat
  • The need to swallow
  • Thick saliva

This study shows that both beverages caused the symptoms, and the belief may be related to the texture of these beverages, but not specifically to milk. The naturally creamy texture of milk will coat the mouth. Milk mixed with saliva may feel thick, but it does NOT mean more mucus is produced. There remains no clinical evidence that milk leads to excessive mucus production or secretion.

Interestingly, in this study, people who believed that milk caused mucus (before the test) were more likely to report effects like a thick mouth coating.4 Bottom line: there was a thick feeling from milk, but it didn’t actually cause more mucus production.

Dispelling a myth

Health professionals can play an important role in dispelling this nutrition myth. The false belief that milk increases mucus is not based on evidence. Armed with the facts, you can assure patients that milk does not cause mucus and avoiding milk is not recommended.

Patient context: Origins of a myth

Beginning in 1946, millions of bookshelves in family homes across North America featured Dr. Spock’s parenting manual Baby and Child Care. Within the pages, Dr. Spock wrote that “dairy products may cause more mucus complications and more discomfort with upper respiratory infections…” and parents believed it to be a fact. Truth is, this fallacy was based on opinion, not science.5

In 1948, doctors tested Spock’s theory. They conducted a study where they carried out nose and throat exams on 157 people. The finding? There was no excess mucus noted in those who drank milk versus those who did not. Yet the myth remained in print, showing that even in the 1940s, influencers with a large following are trusted more than science. In fact, this milk and mucus advice remains in the 9th edition of Dr. Spock’s book, even though it’s simply not true.

CITATIONS

1Balfour-Lynn I. (2019). Milk, mucus and myths. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 104:91-93.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2018-314896

2 Pinnock CB, et al. (1990). Relationship between milk intake and mucus production in adult volunteers challenged with rhinovirus-2. Am Rev Respir Dis. 141(2):352-356. doi:10.1164/ajrccm/141.2.352

3 Pinnock CB et al (1993). The milk-mucus belief: sensory analysis comparing cow’s milk and a soy placebo. Appetite. 20(1):61-70. doi:10.1006/appe.1993.1006

4 Wüthrich B, et al. (2005). Milk consumption does not lead to mucus production or occurrence of asthma. J Am Coll Nutr. 24(6 Suppl):547S-55S. doi:10.1080/07315724.2005.10719503

5 Balfour-Lynn I. (2019). Milk, mucus and myths. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 104:91-93.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2018-314896

Resources

Download useful resources, research studies, and fact sheets on the benefits of dairy

Milk and Mucus

Milk and Mucus The current body of research indicates that milk and other dairy foods do not increase mucus production...

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Hypertension

MILK AND BLOOD PRESSURE Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease and hypertension...

GET THE FACTS

Disease Prevention

Disease Prevention Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes..

GET THE FACTS

RESOURCES

Download useful resources, research studies, and fact sheets on the benefits of dairy

Nutrients in Dairy

As a source of complete protein and essential nutrients, drinking milk is a simple way to support optimal health.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy and Disease Prevention

Naturally nutrient dense, milk helps to combat nutrition deficiencies and ward off heart disease, hypertension, and colorectal cancer.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy Milk and Plant Based Beverages

All forms of milk, including lactose-free milk, contain complete protein, vitamins, and minerals.

GET THE FACTS

Heart Health Benefits of Milk

It is estimated that 80% of heart disease cases can be prevented with lifestyle changes that include a nutritious diet, regular exercise, and smoking cessation.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy and Colorectal Cancer

Studies have shown that high consumption of total dairy products and total milk was associated with a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Hypertension

Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease and hypertension. Learn how adding milk into your patients’ diets can help with blood pressure management.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Lactose Intolerance

Some people have trouble digesting lactose, but that doesn’t mean giving up dairy! Read on to learn more about lactose intolerance, how it’s formally diagnosed, and how you can provide the best nutrition advice to patients.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Physical Activity

Milk has a unique combination of nutrients that make it the ideal beverage for post-exercise rehydration and protein
synthesis.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Pediatric Nutrition

Leading pediatric and health organizations recognize the benefits of milk and dairy foods for early childhood. Just how much milk is recommended for children, and which nutrients will kids get from a tall glass of milk?

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Mucus

When a runny nose or congestion appears, many people believe they need to cut out milk to reduce mucus. It turns out that this is a myth, and studies show that milk does not cause mucus.

GET THE FACTS

Diabetes Prevention and Milk

Take a closer look at the role of milk in the prevention of T2D. There are potential mechanisms through which milk and dairy foods may play a role in reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes

GET THE FACTS

CITATIONS
1Balfour-Lynn I. (2019). Milk, mucus and myths. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 104:91-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2018-314896
2 Pinnock CB, et al. (1990). Relationship between milk intake and mucus production in adult volunteers challenged with rhinovirus-2. Am Rev Respir Dis. 141(2):352-356. doi:10.1164/ajrccm/141.2.352
3 Pinnock CB et al (1993). The milk-mucus belief: sensory analysis comparing cow's milk and a soy placebo. Appetite. 20(1):61-70. doi:10.1006/appe.1993.1006
4 Wüthrich B, et al. (2005). Milk consumption does not lead to mucus production or occurrence of asthma. J Am Coll Nutr. 24(6 Suppl):547S-55S. doi:10.1080/07315724.2005.10719503
5 Balfour-Lynn I. (2019). Milk, mucus and myths. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 104:91-93.http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2018-314896

RESOURCES

Download useful resources, research studies, and fact sheets on the benefits of dairy

Nutrients in Dairy

As a source of complete protein and essential nutrients, drinking milk is a simple way to support optimal health.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy and Disease Prevention

Naturally nutrient dense, milk helps to combat nutrition deficiencies and ward off heart disease, hypertension, and colorectal cancer.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy Milk and Plant Based Beverages

All forms of milk, including lactose-free milk, contain complete protein, vitamins, and minerals.

GET THE FACTS

Heart Health Benefits of Milk

It is estimated that 80% of heart disease cases can be prevented with lifestyle changes that include a nutritious diet, regular exercise, and smoking cessation.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy and Colorectal Cancer

Studies have shown that high consumption of total dairy products and total milk was associated with a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Hypertension

Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease and hypertension. Learn how adding milk into your patients’ diets can help with blood pressure management.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Lactose Intolerance

Some people have trouble digesting lactose, but that doesn’t mean giving up dairy! Read on to learn more about lactose intolerance, how it’s formally diagnosed, and how you can provide the best nutrition advice to patients.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Physical Activity

Milk has a unique combination of nutrients that make it the ideal beverage for post-exercise rehydration and protein
synthesis.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Pediatric Nutrition

Leading pediatric and health organizations recognize the benefits of milk and dairy foods for early childhood. Just how much milk is recommended for children, and which nutrients will kids get from a tall glass of milk?

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Mucus

When a runny nose or congestion appears, many people believe they need to cut out milk to reduce mucus. It turns out that this is a myth, and studies show that milk does not cause mucus.

GET THE FACTS

Diabetes Prevention and Milk

Take a closer look at the role of milk in the prevention of T2D. There are potential mechanisms through which milk and dairy foods may play a role in reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Pediatric NutritionMilk and Pediatric Nutrition

MILK AND PEDIATRIC NUTRITION

Growing Strong: The Importance of Milk to Nourish Children

Leading pediatric and health organizations recognize the benefits of milk and dairy foods for early childhood. Just how much milk is recommended for children and different ages, and which nutrients will kids get from a tall glass of milk? Here are the guidelines and the latest science on milk and children.

Recommendations for milk and dairy foods in children

The Canadian Pediatric Society’s Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants outlines milk and dairy food guidelines for babies and toddlers from six to 24 months (2 years) of age1.

After six months of age: Breastmilk is still the main source of fluid and nourishment, and dairy foods can be introduced in small amounts as one of baby’s first foods. While milk can be used as an ingredient in mixed dishes, full cups of milk should not be introduced to babies yet because milk has more nutrients than babies require. Instead, dairy can be used as an ingredient in many ways, such as:

  • Using milk for making pancakes
  • Adding yogurt to baby cereal
  • Mixing milk and cheese in noodles or rice
  • Adding cheese to toast strips
  • Offering grated cheese

Between 9-12 months: Cups of milk (rather than small amounts of milk as an added ingredient in mixed dishes) can be introduced to babies between nine to 12 months of age. Babies can continue to be breastfed or can be offered 500 mL (2 cups) of whole milk (3.25%) per day. Limit milk intake to no more than 750 mL (3 cups) per day.

Which milk should be offered? Choose pasteurized whole milk (3.25% MF) for babies under age two. Skim milk is not appropriate in the first two years because it does not contain enough fat for baby’s growth and development.

After age two: At this stage, children tend to eat a wider variety of foods and may rely less on milk as a main source of nutrients. It is still recommended that children drink up to two cups (500 mL) of milk per day to meet nutrient needs . It can be any pasteurized milk: skim, 1%, 2 % or whole.

Nutrients in milk

Milk contains 15 essential nutrients that are important for important for children’s normal growth and development:

  • Protein
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B12
  • Riboflavin
  • Niacin
  • Thiamine
  • Pantothenic acid
  • Vitamin D
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Potassium
  • Phosphorus
  • Selenium
  • Zinc

Dairy Matrix: These nutrients, along with other components in milk and dairy foods, work together to form the “dairy matrix.” This describes the unique structure of a dairy food, its components (e.g. nutrients and non-nutrients) and how they interact. The matrix also includes the structure and how the dairy product is produced– for example, fermentation of milk into yogurt or cheese adds to the health benefits.2 </br

Dairy matrix health effects refer to the impact of the whole dairy food on health that extends beyond its individual components. The synergistic effect of multiple dairy nutrients is more valuable than any single nutrient.3 For example, the combination of calcium, vitamin D, protein, magnesium and potassium in milk is important for bone health. Bones require a combination of these nutrients, not just one of them.

Milk and health

Research supports milk as an important part of a healthy and balanced lifestyle. Here are some benefits of milk for children.

Milk and Oral Health: Milk and dairy foods are important for healthy teeth. They contain a unique combination of anti-decay nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus and the milk protein, casein, which protect enamel. Milk may also help protect against cavities.5

Studies show an association between dairy products and increased total body bone mineral content in children and adolescents.6 The association is due to several nutrients in dairy that work synergistically to support bones including calcium, protein, potassium, magnesium, vitamin D, zinc and phosphorus. Increases in peak bone mass in young adulthood are associated with:

  • fewer bone fractures in children
  • a reduced risk of hip fractures as adults
  • a reduced risk of developing osteoporosis later in life.7,8

Milk and mental health

Studies show that milk may help combat depression and anxiety in children.9 This association may be due to nutrients known to play roles in brain health. Specifically:

  • Calcium regulates neurotransmitter release.10
  • Milk proteins are rich in the amino acid tryptophan, a precursor to serotonin.11
  • Vitamin D may protect against inflammation and oxidative stress, which may play a role in depression and anxiety. 12

Milk vs. plant-based beverages for children

Milk naturally contains readily absorbed nutrients, and its nutrient profile is hard to replicate. Plant-based beverages (such as oat beverage or almond beverage) are formulated products made to mimic milk, but most fall short of the 15 nutrients found in milk, including protein.

The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition’s Nutrition Committee says that “substitution of a milk that does not provide a similar nutritional profile to cow’s milk can be deleterious to a child’s nutritional status, growth, and development.” The group adds that misuse of certain plant-based beverages can include failure to gain weight, decreased stature, kidney stones and nutrient deficiencies including anemia. They note that a cup of almond or rice beverage provides only about 2% or 8%, respectively, of the protein found milk.13

A joint statement from the Canadian Pediatric Society and Dietitians of Canada discourages parents from relying on PBB for their children.14 The statement grew out of the concern from public health dietitians who found infants and young children becoming malnourished after being fed plant-based drinks as a main beverage.

Calcium in milk is naturally occurring. Unlike milk, plant-based beverages do not naturally contain adequate calcium, so calcium is added. While milk and PBB may appear to have comparable amounts of calcium on the Nutrition Facts table, there’s a hiccup. The calcium that’s added to PBB tends to sink to the bottom of the unshaken beverage container, where it may not be ingested unless the beverage is well-shaken.15

MILK
 CaloriesFat (g)Carbohydrate (g)Protein (g)Sodium (mg)Potassium (%DV)Calcium (%DV)Vitamin A (%DV)Vitamin D (%DV)Vitamin B12
(%DV)
Skim Milk9001391051230151345
1% milk1102.51291001230101345
2% milk13051291001230101345
3.25% milk16081291001230101345
Lactose free skim milk7007 60523111338
Lactose free 1% milk902.57960523111338
Lactose free 2% milk11057960523111338
Lactose free 3.25% milk14087960523111338

Health Canada has increased the vitamin D fortification level required in milk which will come into effect in 2026. During this transitional period, on the Nutrition Facts Table of your package of milk, you may notice some milk manufacturers will have the current fortification level, which is equivalent to 13% of the recommended daily value (%DV) of vitamin D in a glass of milk, while others may have already adopted the new level of vitamin D fortification level which is equivalent to 25% of the DV% value.

Plant Based Beverages
 CaloriesFat (g)Carbohydrate (g)Protein (g)Sodium (mg)Potassium (%DV)Calcium (%DV)Vitamin A (%DV)Vitamin D (%DV)Vitamin B12 (%DV)
Almond (original)602.581150123111042
Almond (unsweetened)302.511130423111042
Cashew (original)602.591160123111042
Cashew (unsweetened)25211160123111042
Soy (original)10048690830104550
Soy (unsweetened)803.54840930104550
Oat (original)803.5121100423111042
Oat (unsweetened)704.58190423111042
Macadamia (original)704.5711150352520N/A
Macadamia (unsweetened)556111100382520N/A

Milk is nutritious for children. Milk’s unique composition provides key nutrients for children’s healthy growth and development. The dairy matrix is important and can’t be replicated by plant-based beverages. The synergistic effect of multiple dairy nutrients is more valuable than any single nutrient.15

Advise parents and caregivers to offer 2 cups of milk per day to children so they can reap the benefits from the unique nutrient package of milk.

Resources

Download useful resources, research studies, and fact sheets on the benefits of dairy

Milk and Mucus

Milk and Mucus The current body of research indicates that milk and other dairy foods do not increase mucus production...

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Hypertension

MILK AND BLOOD PRESSURE Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease and hypertension...

GET THE FACTS

Disease Prevention

Disease Prevention Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes..

GET THE FACTS

RESOURCES

Download useful resources, research studies, and fact sheets on the benefits of dairy

Nutrients in Dairy

As a source of complete protein and essential nutrients, drinking milk is a simple way to support optimal health.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy and Disease Prevention

Naturally nutrient dense, milk helps to combat nutrition deficiencies and ward off heart disease, hypertension, and colorectal cancer.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy Milk and Plant Based Beverages

All forms of milk, including lactose-free milk, contain complete protein, vitamins, and minerals.

GET THE FACTS

Heart Health Benefits of Milk

It is estimated that 80% of heart disease cases can be prevented with lifestyle changes that include a nutritious diet, regular exercise, and smoking cessation.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy and Colorectal Cancer

Studies have shown that high consumption of total dairy products and total milk was associated with a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Hypertension

Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease and hypertension. Learn how adding milk into your patients’ diets can help with blood pressure management.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Lactose Intolerance

Some people have trouble digesting lactose, but that doesn’t mean giving up dairy! Read on to learn more about lactose intolerance, how it’s formally diagnosed, and how you can provide the best nutrition advice to patients.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Physical Activity

Milk has a unique combination of nutrients that make it the ideal beverage for post-exercise rehydration and protein
synthesis.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Pediatric Nutrition

Leading pediatric and health organizations recognize the benefits of milk and dairy foods for early childhood. Just how much milk is recommended for children, and which nutrients will kids get from a tall glass of milk?

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Mucus

When a runny nose or congestion appears, many people believe they need to cut out milk to reduce mucus. It turns out that this is a myth, and studies show that milk does not cause mucus.

GET THE FACTS

Diabetes Prevention and Milk

Take a closer look at the role of milk in the prevention of T2D. There are potential mechanisms through which milk and dairy foods may play a role in reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes

GET THE FACTS

CITATIONS

RESOURCES

Download useful resources, research studies, and fact sheets on the benefits of dairy

Nutrients in Dairy

As a source of complete protein and essential nutrients, drinking milk is a simple way to support optimal health.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy and Disease Prevention

Naturally nutrient dense, milk helps to combat nutrition deficiencies and ward off heart disease, hypertension, and colorectal cancer.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy Milk and Plant Based Beverages

All forms of milk, including lactose-free milk, contain complete protein, vitamins, and minerals.

GET THE FACTS

Heart Health Benefits of Milk

It is estimated that 80% of heart disease cases can be prevented with lifestyle changes that include a nutritious diet, regular exercise, and smoking cessation.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy and Colorectal Cancer

Studies have shown that high consumption of total dairy products and total milk was associated with a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Hypertension

Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease and hypertension. Learn how adding milk into your patients’ diets can help with blood pressure management.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Lactose Intolerance

Some people have trouble digesting lactose, but that doesn’t mean giving up dairy! Read on to learn more about lactose intolerance, how it’s formally diagnosed, and how you can provide the best nutrition advice to patients.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Physical Activity

Milk has a unique combination of nutrients that make it the ideal beverage for post-exercise rehydration and protein
synthesis.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Pediatric Nutrition

Leading pediatric and health organizations recognize the benefits of milk and dairy foods for early childhood. Just how much milk is recommended for children, and which nutrients will kids get from a tall glass of milk?

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Mucus

When a runny nose or congestion appears, many people believe they need to cut out milk to reduce mucus. It turns out that this is a myth, and studies show that milk does not cause mucus.

GET THE FACTS

Diabetes Prevention and Milk

Take a closer look at the role of milk in the prevention of T2D. There are potential mechanisms through which milk and dairy foods may play a role in reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Physical ActivityMilk and Physical Activity

Milk and Physical Activity

Whether your patients are occasional gym-goers or are training intensely for a triathlon or sport tournament, matching nutrition with exercise is a vital skill to discuss.

Sport nutrition includes ensuring the right amount of carbohydrates are available to replenish glycogen stores; sufficient protein is available to compensate for muscle breakdown; and enough fluids + electrolytes are on-hand to replace what is lost in sweat.1

Athletes rely on optimal nutrition to help fuel their sport and are always looking for an edge. Here’s a great tip to share with them: Milk is an excellent go-to recovery beverage for athletes because of its unique mix of nutrients, including fluid, protein, carbohydrates and electrolytes2. This fact sheet will help you learn more about how milk supports athletic endeavors, so you can share this knowledge with your patients.

Download the Milk and Physical Activity Brochure

Milk as a sport recovery drink

Milk naturally contains a mixture of high-quality protein (with all nine essential amino acids), carbohydrates, water and electrolytes. These are all nutrients that are required after sport3. Plus, milk is considered isotonic with an osmolality of 280–290 osmol/kg, meaning it contains similar concentrations of carbohydrate and sodium to match the body’s needs. All of these factors help milk fuel and rehydrate the body after exercise4.

Milk has been extensively studied as a post-sport hydration beverage. Researchers have found that drinking milk after exercise can support both acute recovery and longer-term training adaptation5. Importantly, milk is also known to reduce post-exercise muscle soreness6, reduce muscle loss, and reduce symptoms of stress after sport, even more than carb-based sport recovery drinks7,8.

Download the Milk and Physical Activity Fact Sheet

What’s the link between milk and exercise recovery?

Protein: Milk contains nine grams of high-quality protein per cup. Protein is vital after sport, since it helps the body repair the muscles that were used during exercise. Milk contains whey and casein proteins, which enhance post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates9. Milk also has a high concentration of branched-chain amino acids such as leucine, which help support muscle protein synthesis and rehydration10,11.

Carbohydrates: Milk contains carbohydrates in the form of lactose, which is a naturally occurring milk sugar that breaks down into glucose and galactose. Lactose can act as a fuel source before and during exercise. Lactose may also play a role in a post-exercise recovery by optimizing muscle and liver glycogen, which is the storage form of carbohydrates in the body13.

Chocolate milk: which contains added sugars in addition to the natural occurring lactose sugar, may be more advantageous when additional carbohydrate is needed14. That may be the case for soccer or hockey tournaments, marathons, bike races, or other endurance sports with high sweat loss. Studies show that drinking chocolate milk right after exercise and again two hours after exercise helps with exercise recovery and lessens muscle damage15.

Fluid and electrolytes: During exercise, it’s common for fluid and electrolytes to be lost through sweat, and these nutrients need to be replenished during and after activity. Milk is an excellent choice since it contains fluid and electrolytes, including sodium and potassium. These nutrients facilitate fluid recovery, rehydration, and electrolyte replenishment following exercise16.

Electrolytes also help improve the recovery of skeletal muscle17. One study showed that gradually drinking milk restored fluid balance better than water or carbohydrate electrolyte drinks, due to how these beverages are digested. Milk is released more slowly from the stomach compared to water or sports drinks, and dairy proteins contribute to this beneficial effect18.

The average athlete loses 1-3L sweat/hour, and both the fluid and the electrolytes need to be replenished. The main electrolyte minerals that are lost through sweat are sodium and chloride, but small amounts of potassium, magnesium, and calcium are also lost19,20.

Here’s an overview of the nutrients found in sweat, and the nutrients found in milk:

Mineralmg/LNutrients in 1 cup 1% milk21
Sodium460-1840113 mg
Chloride710-2840N/A
Potassium160-390387 mg
Magnesium0-3628 mg
Calcium0-120322 mg

Chart from: www.sportsrd.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Whats-In-Your-Sweat.pdf

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a study to establish a beverage hydration index on drinks that provide optimal hydration status22. Researchers looked at 13 different beverages including water, coffee, tea, soda and milk to assess urine output and fluid balance. They found that beverages with a small amount of fat, protein or sugar were better able to keep people hydrated for longer. Since milk contains fat, protein and sugar, it came out on top as being even more hydrating than water. That’s because the macronutrients in milk help delay gastric emptying and keep hydration happening over a longer period.

Milk vs. sporks drinks

Compared to traditional sports drinks, milk has similar amounts of carbohydrate and sodium, but more potassium and protein. The other advantage? Milk is a whole food, while sports drinks are considered ultra-processed and contain artificial colours and flavours.

Nutrient (per cup)Average commercial sports drink*Milk
Carbohydrate15 g12 g
Sodium135 mg110 mg
Potassium40 mg387 mg
Protein0 g9 g

*Based on an average of Gatorade Cool Blue and Powerade Mixed Berry

Practical advice for patients

During activity, ingesting carbohydrates increases muscle glycogen stores, prevent muscle damage and help with training adaptations23. Milk can be sipped during exercise, similar to sports drinks.
After resistance training or intense exercise, recommend 20 grams of high-quality protein to provide anabolic stimulus for muscle protein synthesis24,25.

  • A cup of milk contains 9 g protein.
  • Athletes need about 2 cups of milk for post-workout muscle recovery.
  • Enjoy milk as-is or add it to a smoothie.

The other benefit to milk is that it’s readily available, making it a convenient and easy option to facilitate post-exercise recovery26,27,28. Whether it’s a weekday hockey game, a weekend run or a week-long volleyball tournament, milk is an excellent beverage to promote glycogen storage, muscle synthesis and rehydration.

CITATIONS

1https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S221226721501802X
2https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-019-0288-5
3https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2018.1534989?journalCode=tejs20
4https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00745.2016
5https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2018.1534989?journalCode=tejs20
6https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2018.1534989?journalCode=tejs20
7https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/1/112
8https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/2/228
9https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/2/228/htm
10https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16365096/
11https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2018.1534989?journalCode=tejs20
12https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S095869462030340X
13https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29921963/
14https://karger.com/books/book/2775/chapter-abstract/5802048/Chocolate-Milk-A-Post-Exercise-Recovery-Beverage?redirectedFrom=fulltext
15https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/2/228/htm
16https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-019-0288-5
17https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/a-metered-intake-of-milk-following-exercise-and-thermal-dehydration-restores-whole-body-net-fluid-balance-better-than-a-carbohydrateelectrolyte-solution-or-water-in-healthy-young-men/1124729E49B3AC434876B15A9DF7F770
18https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373370/
19https://www.acefitness.org/certifiednewsarticle/715/electrolytes-understanding-replacement-options/#:~:text=Electrolytes%20lost%20in%20high%20concentrations,include%20potassium%2C%20magnesium%20and%20calcium.
20https://food-nutrition.canada.ca/cnf-fce/serving-portion?id=124
21https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/103/3/717/4564598?login=false 22https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1186/s12970-017-0189-4
23https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2018.1534989?journalCode=tejs20
24https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1186/s12970-017-0189-4
25https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2018.1534989?journalCode=tejs20
26https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29462969/
27https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-019-0288-5

Resources

Download useful resources, research studies, and fact sheets on the benefits of dairy

Milk and Mucus

Milk and Mucus The current body of research indicates that milk and other dairy foods do not increase mucus production...

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Hypertension

MILK AND BLOOD PRESSURE Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease and hypertension...

GET THE FACTS

Disease Prevention

Disease Prevention Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes..

GET THE FACTS

RESOURCES

Download useful resources, research studies, and fact sheets on the benefits of dairy

Nutrients in Dairy

As a source of complete protein and essential nutrients, drinking milk is a simple way to support optimal health.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy and Disease Prevention

Naturally nutrient dense, milk helps to combat nutrition deficiencies and ward off heart disease, hypertension, and colorectal cancer.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy Milk and Plant Based Beverages

All forms of milk, including lactose-free milk, contain complete protein, vitamins, and minerals.

GET THE FACTS

Heart Health Benefits of Milk

It is estimated that 80% of heart disease cases can be prevented with lifestyle changes that include a nutritious diet, regular exercise, and smoking cessation.

GET THE FACTS

Dairy and Colorectal Cancer

Studies have shown that high consumption of total dairy products and total milk was associated with a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Hypertension

Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease and hypertension. Learn how adding milk into your patients’ diets can help with blood pressure management.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Lactose Intolerance

Some people have trouble digesting lactose, but that doesn’t mean giving up dairy! Read on to learn more about lactose intolerance, how it’s formally diagnosed, and how you can provide the best nutrition advice to patients.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Physical Activity

Milk has a unique combination of nutrients that make it the ideal beverage for post-exercise rehydration and protein
synthesis.

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Pediatric Nutrition

Leading pediatric and health organizations recognize the benefits of milk and dairy foods for early childhood. Just how much milk is recommended for children, and which nutrients will kids get from a tall glass of milk?

GET THE FACTS

Milk and Mucus

When a runny nose or congestion appears, many people believe they need to cut out milk to reduce mucus. It turns out that this is a myth, and studies show that milk does not cause mucus.

GET THE FACTS

Diabetes Prevention and Milk

Take a closer look at the role of milk in the prevention of T2D. There are potential mechanisms through which milk and dairy foods may play a role in reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes

GET THE FACTS

CITATIONS
1https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S221226721501802X
2https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-019-0288-5
3https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2018.1534989?journalCode=tejs20
4https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00745.2016
5https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2018.1534989?journalCode=tejs20
6https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2018.1534989?journalCode=tejs20
7https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/1/112
8https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/2/228
9https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/2/228/htm
10https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16365096/
11https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2018.1534989?journalCode=tejs20
12https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S095869462030340X
13https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29921963/
14https://karger.com/books/book/2775/chapter-abstract/5802048/Chocolate-Milk-A-Post-Exercise-Recovery-Beverage?redirectedFrom=fulltext
15https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/2/228/htm
16https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-019-0288-5
17https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/a-metered-intake-of-milk-following-exercise-and-thermal-dehydration-restores-whole-body-net-fluid-balance-better-than-a-carbohydrateelectrolyte-solution-or-water-in-healthy-young-men/1124729E49B3AC434876B15A9DF7F770
18https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373370/
19https://www.acefitness.org/certifiednewsarticle/715/electrolytes-understanding-replacement-options/#:~:text=Electrolytes%20lost%20in%20high%20concentrations,include%20potassium%2C%20magnesium%20and%20calcium.
20https://food-nutrition.canada.ca/cnf-fce/serving-portion?id=124
21https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/103/3/717/4564598?login=false 22https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1186/s12970-017-0189-4
23https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2018.1534989?journalCode=tejs20
24https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1186/s12970-017-0189-4
25https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2018.1534989?journalCode=tejs20
26https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29462969/
27https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-019-0288-5

RESOURCES

Download useful resources, research studies, and fact sheets on the benefits of dairy

Nutrients in Dairy

As a source of complete protein and essential nutrients, drinking milk is a simple way to support optimal health.

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Dairy and Disease Prevention

Naturally nutrient dense, milk helps to combat nutrition deficiencies and ward off heart disease, hypertension, and colorectal cancer.

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Dairy Milk and Plant Based Beverages

All forms of milk, including lactose-free milk, contain complete protein, vitamins, and minerals.

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Heart Health Benefits of Milk

It is estimated that 80% of heart disease cases can be prevented with lifestyle changes that include a nutritious diet, regular exercise, and smoking cessation.

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Dairy and Colorectal Cancer

Studies have shown that high consumption of total dairy products and total milk was associated with a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer.

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Milk and Hypertension

Milk plays a role in disease prevention for many chronic conditions, including heart disease and hypertension. Learn how adding milk into your patients’ diets can help with blood pressure management.

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Milk and Lactose Intolerance

Some people have trouble digesting lactose, but that doesn’t mean giving up dairy! Read on to learn more about lactose intolerance, how it’s formally diagnosed, and how you can provide the best nutrition advice to patients.

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Milk and Physical Activity

Milk has a unique combination of nutrients that make it the ideal beverage for post-exercise rehydration and protein
synthesis.

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Milk and Pediatric Nutrition

Leading pediatric and health organizations recognize the benefits of milk and dairy foods for early childhood. Just how much milk is recommended for children, and which nutrients will kids get from a tall glass of milk?

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Milk and Mucus

When a runny nose or congestion appears, many people believe they need to cut out milk to reduce mucus. It turns out that this is a myth, and studies show that milk does not cause mucus.

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Diabetes Prevention and Milk

Take a closer look at the role of milk in the prevention of T2D. There are potential mechanisms through which milk and dairy foods may play a role in reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes

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